An obligation can also be created involuntarily, such as an obligation arising from torts or a statute (e.g. Obligations can be held by any individual or entity that is engaged in any sort of contract with another party, and broadly speaking, can be written or unwritten. A politician, for example, has the written obligation to serve all of their constituents within the confines of the law, but they may also have an unwritten obligation to make decisions that will affect their largest donors.
Failure to meet these https://www.wave-accounting.net/ may result in legal action by the U.S. government. The company must refund your money in line with their contractual obligations. F) the extent of the obligation of a maintenance debtor, where a public body seeks reimbursement of benefits provided for a creditor in place of maintenance. Unless at the time of the designation the parties were fully informed and aware of the consequences of their designation, the law designated by the parties shall not apply where the application of that law would lead to manifestly unfair or unreasonable consequences for any of the parties. Notwithstanding the law designated by the parties in accordance with paragraph 1, the question of whether the creditor can renounce his or her right to maintenance shall be determined by the law of the State of the habitual residence of the creditor at the time of the designation.
Vocabulary lists containing obligation
Comments or questions about document content can not be answered by OFR staff. The Maastricht Principles bridge these gaps by defining obligations of States extraterritorially, indicating what can constitute breaches of these obligations and where State responsibility can be engaged, and by suggesting key elements for remedies in cases of such breaches and violations. The document builds upon two previous documents of this kind, the Limburg Principles and the Maastricht Guidelines that are referred to in other parts of the present Guide. Implementing measures to modify discriminatory social and cultural pat-terns that result in any disadvantage for vulnerable groups.
- In English the undertaking is “to take steps”, in French it is “to act” (“s’engage à agir”) and in Spanish it is “to adopt measures” (“a adoptar medidas”).
- I don’t have time to do his work for him – I have too many obligations as it is.
- Undoubtedly and admittedly, the Government of Nigeria, through NNPC has the right to produce oil, the income from which will be used to fulfil the economic and social rights of Nigerians.
- Questioning employees about their union sympathies or activities in circumstances that tend to interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights under the Act.
We now examine the conduct of the Government of Nigeria in relation to Articles 16 and 24 of the African Charter. Undoubtedly and admittedly, the Government of Nigeria, through NNPC has the right to produce oil, the income from which will be used to fulfil the economic and social rights of Nigerians. But the care that should have been taken as outlined in the preceding paragraph and which would have protected the rights of the victims of the violations complained of was not taken. To exacerbate the situation, the security forces of the government engaged in conduct in violation of the rights of the Ogonis by attacking, burning and destroying several Ogoni villages and homes. In other words, States are expected to be proactive agents, capable of increasing access to ESC rights, and ensure the enjoyment of at least a minimum essential level of the rights to all. The obligation to protect requires a State to take measures that prevent third parties from interfering with the enjoyment of a right.
synonym study for obligation
For example, adopting and implementing a national strategy and plan of action in the field of education, health, or water and sanitation can be related to the immediate obligation to “take steps”. When you are morally or legally bound to a particular commitment, it’s your obligation to follow through on it. If you see a crime taking place, for example, it’s your obligation to notify the police. If an elderly person comes onto a full bus, it’s your obligation to give up your seat for him. Sometimes when you enter a formal agreement with someone involving money, you might have to sign an obligation that states you are committed to paying back what you’ve borrowed.
- On the other hand, the phrase must be read in the light of the overall objective, indeed the raison d’être, of the Covenant which is to establish clear obligations for States parties in respect of the full realization of the rights in question.
- Options trading can be complicated and investors sometimes mistakenly believe purchasing a call option requires you to buy a certain amount of stock at the strike price, but this is not the case.
- The document builds upon two previous documents of this kind, the Limburg Principles and the Maastricht Guidelines that are referred to in other parts of the present Guide.
- Considered in light of the “overall objective, indeed the raison d’être” of the Covenant, the Committee clarifies that article 2 “imposes an obligation to move as expeditiously and effectively as possible” towards the full realization of Covenant rights.
- This area of ESC rights litigation will most probably see important developments in the coming years.
The right of a public body to seek reimbursement of a benefit provided to the creditor in place of maintenance shall be governed by the law to which that body is subject. D) the law designated by the parties as applicable, or the law in fact applied, to their divorce or legal separation. If the creditor is unable, by virtue of the law referred to in Article 3, to obtain maintenance from the debtor, the law of the forum shall apply. If you have questions or comments regarding a published document please contact the publishing agency.
The approach of the CESCR, as laid down in the General Comment 20, is thus consonant with the provisions of the ICEDAW in its article 4 concerning temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality. Regardless of the availability of resources however, the CESCR has emphasized that States must use all of its available resources to prioritize the fulfilment of the minimum core content of each right. Therefore, the legal meaning of an obligation does not only denote a duty, but also denotes a correlative right—one party has an obligation means another party has a correlative right. The person or entity who was liable for the obligation is called obligor; the person or entity who holds the correlative right to an obligation is called obligee. The popular meaning of the term “obligation” is a duty to do or not to do something. An obligation can be created voluntarily, such as one arising from a contract, quasi-contract, or unilateral promise.
In March 2021 the Human Rights Council extended the mandate for another three years (resolution 46/7). States must protect against human rights abuse within their territory and/or jurisdiction by third parties, including business enterprises. This requires taking appropriate Obligations steps to prevent, investigate, punish and redress such abuse through effective policies, legislation, regulations and adjudication. The other is the undertaking in article 2 “to take steps”, which in itself, is not qualified or limited by other considerations.
UN experts urge Parties to Rotterdam Convention to adopt amendment listing hazardous chemicals
And Signature Bridge Bank, N.A., to assume the deposits and obligations of two failing banks. All contracts entered into with banks before they failed, and their counterparties were transferred into the bridge bank by the FDIC as receiver. Accordingly, vendors and counterparties with contracts with the bridge bank are legally obligated to continue to perform under the contracts, and the bridge is obligated to and has the full ability to make timely payments to vendors and counterparties and otherwise perform its obligations under the contract.
What is a simple word for obligation?
accountability, agreement, bond, burden, commitment, constraint, contract, debt, duty, liability, necessity, need, promise, requirement, right, trust, understanding, business, call, cause.